What is the inequality? In the most general view the inequality means that people live in conditions under which they have unequal access to limited resources of material and spiritual consumption. Between groups of people in sociology widely apply concept to the description of system of an inequality
group, from one nationality in another, from one family (both the husband, and the wife) in another at divorce or at repeated marriage, from one factory on another, at preservation thus the professional status, - all this examples of horizontal social mobility. Them are movements of social objects (radio, the car, fashion, idea of communism, the theory of Darwin) within one social layer, like movement from Iowa to California or from a certain place to any other. In all these cases "movement" can happen without what - or noticeable changes of a social status of the individual or social object in the vertical direction.
However in the market people take different positions or are in different "a class situation". Here all sell and buy. One sell goods, services; others - labor. Difference here that one own property, and at others it is absent.
The same who stop on functional approach, set to themselves more difficult task: the groups possessing the real power in adoption of socially important decisions (many representatives of these groups, clearly, can not borrow as - or visible public posts, to remain in "shadow").
As at historical mobility of a form its essence, i.e. an inequality of position of different groups of people, remains throughout all history of a civilization. Even in primitive societies the age and a floor in combination with physical force was important criterion of stratification.
A variety of the relations of roles, positions is resulted in distinctions between people in each concrete society. The problem is reduced to that in some way to order these relations to a medzhd categories of the people differing in many aspects aspects.
It is necessary to call the ninth type of stratification system culturally - standard. Here differentiation is constructed on distinctions of respect and prestige, voznikkyushchy of comparison of a way of life and standards of behavior to which this person or group follows. The relation to physical and to brainwork, ietikt consumer tastes and habits, manners of communication, special language
certain kinds of activity. Effectiveness of qualification certificates is maintained by force of the state or some other rather powerful corporation (professional shop. And certificates
In turn, imperious approaches are subdivided on struktutny and functional. Choosing simpler structural approach read out from the empirical point of view as elite a circle of people, the considered institutes (ministers, directors, voyenonachalnik) taking the highest official positions in
the class cannot be subject of action as it is not a community. In difference that Marx Weber connected concept of a class only with capitalist society where as the regulator of the relations the market acts. By means of
In social stratification inheritance of poziiya tends. Action of the principle of inheritance of positions brings kty that not all capable and educated individuals have equal chances to occupy the imperious, having the high principles and well paid positions. Here two mechanisms of selection operate: unequal access to originally quality education; unequal opportunities of receiving positions equally the prepared individuals.
and against egoistical board rich a ratiya plutok. The best society is formed of middle class, and the state where this class is more numerous and is stronger, than both others, together taken, copes best of all because public balance is provided.
So, if not in a bigger measure, the system of public organization influences the level and nature of mobility. Scientists paid attention to qualitative distinctions in this regard between societies of the opened and closed type long ago. In the open